Thursday, March 19, 2015

The Chief Deities of Ancient Times

Ancient Egyptians considered Re to be the father of all the gods. Often represented in lion, cat, or falcon form, it is said that Re-created mankind from his own tears. Re (above) is depicted as a cat fighting his enemy snake god Apophis, the god of darkness.

In Late Predynastic period, the time of Re, Ka, and Narmer began. Re was the sun god, the king of the gods and father of humankind, and the chief deity of ancient Egypt. He was represented by the lion, cat, and falcon; wore the solar disk; and held an ankh and scepter. Ka was referred to as the soul of Egyptian mythology. Narmer was the falcon king of Upper Egypt who merged Upper and Lower Egypt into one realm. The falcon god Horus embodied one of the most fundamental tenets of Egyptian religious and political beliefs, and governed divine kingship. Ancient Egyptian rulers were followers of Horus, who by the time of unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, was the ruler of Egypt.

The falcon kings wore a tall miter known as the white crown. In the delta, the rival king wore the red crown, a flat-top cap with a front spiral with its back projected upward. After unification, the king, or pharaoh, wore a double crown. During battles he wore a blue crown.

Some Egyptologists believe Narmer to be king of the First Dynasty; others assimilate him as Narmer/Menes. (It is important to understand that historians vary in their assemblage of dates and variations in spelling. Contrary to the assumed north and south designations, Lower Egypt was called the north, while Memphis and Upper Egypt were considered to be in the southern portion.)

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